What is much more common is that adults must do the work of healing those patterns from childhood when they learned to operate out of shame, fear and anxiety. Those patterns are never longterm solutions, and they must always be replaced with love and acceptance if we are to continue to grow as adults. Regarding the study above, I have more than one question: What is the life expectancy of those kids? What is their health like? Their marriages? Their children? As teens, I could see that they have learned to "convert" those needs for attachment into more socially acceptable behaviors and self beliefs. I'd love to see the results of this spanking "study" on a longer-term scale.
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